This collection presents the papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.
Metal-semiconductor nanostructures represent an important new class of materials employed in designing advanced optoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, such as plasmonic nanolasers, plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes and solar cells, plasmonic emitters of single photons, and quantum devices operating in infrared and terahertz domains. The combination of surface plasmon resonances in conducting structures, providing strong concentration of an electromagnetic optical field nearby, with sharp optical resonances in semiconductors, which are highly sensitive to external electromagnetic fields, creates a platform to control light on the nanoscale. The design of the composite metal-semiconductor system imposes the consideration of both the plasmonic resonances in metal and the optical transitions in semiconductors - a key issue being their resonant interaction providing a coupling regime.
Recent studies indicate that China accounts for about 96 percent of the world's supply of rare earth materials (REMs). With REMs becoming increasingly important for a growing number of high-tech applications, appropriate action must be taken to mitigate the effects of a shortage of critical REMs in defense systems and components.
Some 20 years ago, I was privileged to share in writing a book on the descriptive chemistry of the 4d, 5d, 4f and 5f metals that included these eight elements within its compass (S.A. Cotton and F.A. Hart, The Heavy Transition Elements, Macmillan, 1975). This volume shares the same aim of covering the descriptive chemistry of silver, gold and the six platinum metals in some detail at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate study. It does not attempt to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemistry of these metals. It attempts to fill a slot between the general text and the in-depth review or monograph. The organometallic chemistry is confined to a-bonded com- pounds in normal oxidation states; compounds with IT-bonding ligands are generally excluded. Their inclusion would have increased the length of the book considerably and, moreover, their recent chemistry has been extensively and expertly reviewed in the new Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry, II, eds G. Wilkinson, F.G.A. Stone and E.W. Abel, Pergamon, Oxford, 1995.
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