Metal-semiconductor nanostructures represent an important new class of materials employed in designing advanced optoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, such as plasmonic nanolasers, plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes and solar cells, plasmonic emitters of single photons, and quantum devices operating in infrared and terahertz domains. The combination of surface plasmon resonances in conducting structures, providing strong concentration of an electromagnetic optical field nearby, with sharp optical resonances in semiconductors, which are highly sensitive to external electromagnetic fields, creates a platform to control light on the nanoscale. The design of the composite metal-semiconductor system imposes the consideration of both the plasmonic resonances in metal and the optical transitions in semiconductors - a key issue being their resonant interaction providing a coupling regime.
This collection presents the papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.
Paramagnetic transition metal ions provide the opportunity for application of a wide variety of spectroscopic techniques. Although spectroscopic techniques are not as well known as conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), they provide detailed information centered on the active site itself. This book describes the application of paramagnetic resonance techniques to a number of important systems in metallobiochemistry. Simultaneously, this volume provides information on novel experimantal methods and theoretical approaches to understanding the structure and function of metalloenzymes and other metallobiomolecules. The specific techniques described include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and its derivative techniques, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM). These latter two techniques directly probe the nuclear environment of the paramagnetic active site, without interference from magnetically active nuclei that are not involved in the active site. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), which links magnetic resonance and oprical spectrospoy, is also described. The application of MCD to problems in metallobiochemistry is growing rapidly, yet uhere are few sources that clearly describe this complex technique. This volume provides several approaches involving MCD. Finally, this book also includes a wide variety of biological systems including heme proteins, iron-sulfur proteins, molybdopterins, manganese proteins, and copper proteins, as well as non-protein biological molecules, such as ribozymes.
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