This engaging work uses key discoveries, events, people, techniques, and controversies to give the general reader a rich history of archaeology from its beginnings in the 16th century to the present. Treasures, temples, and tombs; pyramids, pots, and projectile points - the stuff of archaeology has captured people's imagination since the first digs in the 16th century. Although humans have always been fascinated with the past, the formal discipline of archaeology has existed for only 500 years. This book details the surprisingly controversial course of those five centuries. The history of archaeology leads from the musty collections of dilettante antiquarians to high-tech science. The book identifies three major developmental periods - Birth of Archaeology (16th-18th centuries), Archaeology of Origins and Empires (19th century), and World Archaeology (20th century). An introductory essay acquaints the reader with the essence of the science for each period. The short entries comprising the balance of the book are organized around the themes introduced in the essays. Organized around personalities, techniques, controversies, and conflicts, the encyclopedia brings to life the history of archaeology. It broadens the general reader's knowledge by detailing the professional significance of widely known discoveries while introducing to wider knowledge obscure but important moments in archaeology. Archaeology is replete with the visionaries and swashbucklers of popular myth; it is also filled with careful and dedicated scientists.
Inscribed Minoan stone vessels are ritual gifts that index their dedicants' intention that both their gift and their name should survive permanently at the place of dedication. These vessels contained offerings, yet the vessels themselves were also offerings, serving as permanent records of a ritual act. These rituals were most likely communal, incorporating group feasting and drinking. The seasonality of these rituals suggests that they were focused on the cycle of life: fertility, birth, death and renewal. Offerings left with the vessels suggest that these rituals also addressed other, more personal concerns. As for Linear A itself: the language behind the script appears to contain a fairly standard phonemic inventory, though there are hints of additional, more exotic phonemes. The morphology of the language appears to involve affixation, a typical mode of inflection in human languages. The presence of significant prefixing tends to rule out PIE as a parent language, while the word-internal vowel alternations typical of Afroasiatic verbal inflection are nowhere to be found in this script. In the end, Linear A appears most likely to represent a non-IE, non-Afroasiatic language, perhaps with agglutinative tendencies, and perhaps with VSO word order.
It's 1967 East Los Angeles. Duffy Chavez is ten years old and from a large, mixed-race, single-parent family. Growing up is never easy, but for young Duffy Chavez, whose childhood is anything but innocent, the journey is particularly painful. Swimming against the tides of her troubled family as well as her own cultural identity, she struggles with the cards she has been dealt. Buoyed up by the belief of a select few, she strives to achieve the kind of self-knowledge that comes so naturally to the 'real girls' all around her. As gaps in the narrative begin to fill, and the truth surrounding Duffy's birth is unearthed, her determination to succeed is rendered all the more astounding. Told in uncompromising clarity through the eyes of a child, A House of Light and Stone is at once full of heartbreak and hope, offering respites of warmth in the coldest of places.
Love, Friendship and a birthday, would could possibly go wrong? A group of four friends, a life-changing birthday for them all, a birthday that the town would never forget, a birthday that would make its way into legends and myth. Book one in the Troubled Minds series.
Robert W. Service's 1912 collection of poems is thoughtful and insightful. A nomadic man, Service spent many years living and interacting with Canada's natural and breathtaking landscapes. Service's poetry touches on many subjects including: what it means to be a nomadic; the importance of religion; aging; scepticism in religion; and an appreciation of nature.
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