At the end of the 1970s, when signs of destabilization of forests became visible in EuÂ rope on a large scale, it soon became obvious that the syndrome called "forest deÂ cline" was caused by a network of interrelated factors of abiotic and biotic origin. All attempts to explain the wide-spread syndrome by a single cause, and there were many of them, failed or can only be regarded as a single mosaic stone in the network of causÂ es behind the phenomenon. Forest ecosystems are highly complex natural or quasiÂ natural systems, which exhibit different structures and functions and as a conseÂ quence different resilience to internal or external stresses. Moreover, forest ecosysÂ tems have a long history, which means that former impacts may act as predisposing factors for other stresses. The complexity and the different history of forest ecosysÂ tems are two reasons that make it difficult to assess the actual state and future develÂ opment of forests. But there are two other reasons: one is the large time scale in which forests react, the other is the idiosyncrasy of the reactions on different sites. Due to the slow reaction and the regional complexity of the abiotic environment of forest ecosysÂ tems, a profound analysis of each site and region is necessary to identify the underlyÂ ing causes and driving forces when attempting to overcome the destruction of forest ecosystems.
In the fall of 1942, Claudia Donaldson, a typical teenager looking forward to her senior in high school, soon learns the year she envisioned is not to be. Her professor father accepts an administrative position at Topaz, a Japanese-American internment camp in Utah's desert, and her mother is will be a teacher there. Leaving her friends behind, Claudia and her family of four live in barracks with other Caucasian camp staff. They endure dust storms, cafeteria food, and communal bathrooms.
Perhaps Claudia's greatest sacrifice is moving from a high school of 300 students to a class of twenty-six in the tiny town of Delta, where the academic and extracurricular choices are slim. Claudia overcomes those shortcomings, gathering a large circle of wise, funny friends from the compound's youth fellowship group. Observing and unconsciously absorbing the ongoing examples of grace under pressure around, Claudia garners the strength and maturity to pursue her dream of a musical career.
As "The Gem of the Desert" follows Claudia through the trials and joys of her senior year, it also depicts the isolation and gloom of the Japanese-American people confined in camps, a part of history that needs to be told.
A research focus on hazards, risk perception and risk minimizing strategies is relatively new in the social and environmental sciences. This volume by a prominent scholar of East African societies is a powerful example of this growing interest. Earlier theory and research tended to describe social and economic systems in some form of equilibrium. However recent thinking in human ecology, evolutionary biology, not to mention in economic and political theory has come to assign to "risk" a prominent role in predictive modeling of behavior. It turns out that risk minimalization is central to the understanding of individual strategies and numerous social institutions. It is not simply a peripheral and transient moment in a group's history. Anthropologists interested in forager societies have emphasized risk management strategies as a major force shaping hunting and gathering routines and structuring institutions of food sharing and territorial behavior. This book builds on some of these developments but through the analysis of quite complex pastoral and farming peoples and in populations with substantial known histories. The method of analysis depends heavily on the controlled comparisons of different populations sharing some cultural characteristics but differing in exposure to certain risks or hazards.
The central questions guiding this approach are: 1) How are hazards generated through environmental variation and degradation, through increasing internal stratification, violent conflicts and marginalization? 2) How do these hazards result in damages to single households or to individual actors and how do these costs vary within one society? 3) How are hazards perceived by the people affected? 4) How do actors of different wealth, social status, age and gender try to minimize risks by delimiting the effect of damages during an on-going crisis and what kind of institutionalized measures do they design to insure themselves against hazards, preventing their occurrence or limiting their effects? 5) How is risk minimization affected by cultural innovation and how can the importance of the quest for enhanced security as a driving force of cultural evolution be estimated?
Professor C.A. Macartney was one of the foremost 20th-century authorities on the history of the Danube basin. His life's work included the re-examination of the sources relating to early Hungarian and Pontic history. This selection of his studies (some of them hardly accessible because they were published in wartime conditions) illuminates one of the dark corners of medieval Europe and tackles controversial questions in the history of the nomadic steppe peoples, such as the Magyars, Pechenegs, Kavars and Cumans. Macartney's treatment of the earliest Hungarian written sources and their interpretation laid the foundation for his shorter book, The Medieval Hungarian Historians. The present volume brings together for the first time, and indexes, his series of detailed studies on this material; penetrating in both its analysis and scholarship, this work remains indispensable for our understanding of the period and its historiography.
This work introduces Practical Project Management Methodology (P2M2), an international joint venture developed by three experienced project managers the provide useful steps applicable throughout the life cycle of a variety of projects. It covers areas from leading, defining and planning to organizing, controlling and closing. The two disks include 21 prepared forms and 300 activities for use in Microsoft Excel and Project for Windows.
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