This collection presents the papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.
Metal-semiconductor nanostructures represent an important new class of materials employed in designing advanced optoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, such as plasmonic nanolasers, plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes and solar cells, plasmonic emitters of single photons, and quantum devices operating in infrared and terahertz domains. The combination of surface plasmon resonances in conducting structures, providing strong concentration of an electromagnetic optical field nearby, with sharp optical resonances in semiconductors, which are highly sensitive to external electromagnetic fields, creates a platform to control light on the nanoscale. The design of the composite metal-semiconductor system imposes the consideration of both the plasmonic resonances in metal and the optical transitions in semiconductors - a key issue being their resonant interaction providing a coupling regime.
Recent studies indicate that China accounts for about 96 percent of the world's supply of rare earth materials (REMs). With REMs becoming increasingly important for a growing number of high-tech applications, appropriate action must be taken to mitigate the effects of a shortage of critical REMs in defense systems and components.
Advanced Metallization Conference 2006Â¿held in Tokyo and San Diego, CaliforniaÂ¿highlights both current state-of-the Âart and ongoing challenges associated with multilevel interconnects. Technical leaders from around the world gathered to discuss developments in the integration of low-dielectric constant materials with copper-based metallization, and advances in the means by which process- or stress-induced damage can be mitigated and reliability of the interconnect system improved. Contributions to the volume focus on design, development and modeling of advanced on-chip and multichip interconnect architectures and real-world implementation of optimized designs, materials and processes for production of leading-edge microelectronic devices. A keynote address by H.-S. Philip Wong, Stanford University, on Â¿Nanostructured Materials for InterconnectsÂ¿ is featured. 2007, hardcover, 97 papers, 693 pages.
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