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Metal-semiconductor nanostructures represent an important new class of materials employed in designing advanced optoelectronic and nanophotonic devices, such as plasmonic nanolasers, plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes and solar cells, plasmonic emitters of single photons, and quantum devices operating in infrared and terahertz domains. The combination of surface plasmon resonances in conducting structures, providing strong concentration of an electromagnetic optical field nearby, with sharp optical resonances in semiconductors, which are highly sensitive to external electromagnetic fields, creates a platform to control light on the nanoscale. The design of the composite metal-semiconductor system imposes the consideration of both the plasmonic resonances in metal and the optical transitions in semiconductors - a key issue being their resonant interaction providing a coupling regime.
This collection presents the papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.
Infra-red thermal imaging is a rapid and non-invasive procedure for mapping skin temperature distribution of the human body. The natural infra-red emission from the skin is captured by the imaging camera, and is displayed as a digital image. Advanced software and high resolution infra-red detectors has allowed for a renaissance in the use of infra-red thermal imaging or thermography in medical research and practice. Thermal imaging provides a two dimensional map of skin temperature, which can often indicate a localisation of hypo or hyperthermia and its major clinical value is in its high sensitivity to pathology in the vascular, muscular, neural and skeletal systems and as such can contribute to the pathogenesis and diagnosis. After a brief review of theory and technology of infra-red imaging the bulk of the book consists of a collection of clinical case studies demonstrating the wide variety of applications for thermography in modern medicine. The combined expertise from a number of centres is used to create a database of images that will be invaluable for practitioners in making diagnoses and measuring treatment efficacy.
A Complete Reference Covering the Latest Technology in Metal Cutting Tools, Processes, and Equipment Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, Third Edition shapes the future of material removal in new and lasting ways. Centered on metallic work materials and traditional chip-forming cutting methods, the book provides a physical understanding of conventional and high-speed machining processes applied to metallic work pieces, and serves as a basis for effective process design and troubleshooting. This latest edition of a well-known reference highlights recent developments, covers the latest research results, and reflects current areas of emphasis in industrial practice. Based on the authors' extensive automotive production experience, it covers several structural changes, and includes an extensive review of computer aided engineering (CAE) methods for process analysis and design. Providing updated material throughout, it offers insight and understanding to engineers looking to design, operate, troubleshoot, and improve high quality, cost effective metal cutting operations. The book contains extensive up-to-date references to both scientific and trade literature, and provides a description of error mapping and compensation strategies for CNC machines based on recently issued international standards, and includes chapters on cutting fluids and gear machining. The authors also offer updated information on tooling grades and practices for machining compacted graphite iron, nickel alloys, and other hard-to-machine materials, as well as a full description of minimum quantity lubrication systems, tooling, and processing practices. In addition, updated topics include machine tool types and structures, cutting tool materials and coatings, cutting mechanics and temperatures, process simulation and analysis, and tool wear from both chemical and mechanical viewpoints. Comprised of 17 chapters, this detailed study: * Describes the common machining operations used to produce specific shapes or surface characteristics * Contains conventional and advanced cutting tool technologies * Explains the properties and characteristics of tools which influence tool design or selection * Clarifies the physical mechanisms which lead to tool failure and identifies general strategies for reducing failure rates and increasing tool life * Includes common machinability criteria, tests, and indices * Breaks down the economics of machining operations * Offers an overview of the engineering aspects of MQL machining * Summarizes gear machining and finishing methods for common gear types, and more Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, Third Edition emphasizes the physical understanding and analysis for robust process design, troubleshooting, and improvement, and aids manufacturing engineering professionals, and engineering students in manufacturing engineering and machining processes programs.
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